Peace instruction is a nomenclature about which there seems to be non much consciousness among the instructors and the taught. Peace instruction has non received the needful attending of course of study contrivers and research in this country is scarce. Despite limited research, educational theoreticians and bookmans like Peader Cremin, Mehmooda Rehman, and Susan Fountain have decidedly clarified the construct of peace instruction and provided a platform to the authorities and educational governments to inculcate the construct of peace instruction in the course of study for the development of society.
Yousaf et al., ( 2010 ), described Peace instruction is educating all people for peace to fulfill their physical and societal demands through single and group action at the micro ( interpersonal ) and macro ( local, national, and planetary inter group ) degrees. Educating all people for peace is merely possible by developing selflessness, friendly relationship, good relationships and by working hand in glove with others. Peace can non be secured wholly by commercial involvements, military confederations, general disarming or common pacts, instead the spirit for peace demands to be in the heads and will of the people and so it is needfully a affair of Education
The turning force and extremism have generated new involvement in educationalists to see what the course of study contains and what has to be added to cultivate brooding thought in pupils. There is a desperate demand to advance cosmopolitan peace, love, and harmoniousness in the schools through course of study under the umbrella of “ Love for All and Hatred for None ” The present survey is an analysis of the different facets of Peace in the course of study of English and Pakistan Studies taught in secondary schools of North-West Frontier Province ( N-W.F.P ), Pakistan.
Rehman, Mehmooda ( 2006 ) stated that Peace is a obscure word. For some it means silence, composure and quiet, while other perceive it is an “ terminal to dispute ”, no struggle, no war, no force, or no difference. Peace is the consequence of human attempts and has many constituents like satisfaction of the basic human demands ; apprehension, tolerance, regard, holding harmoniousness in society ; order, justness and security in the society ; non-violence and co-operation ; absence of struggle and war ; and love for all and hatred for none.
Bretherton, et Al ( 2002 ) stated “ The purpose of peace instruction is to pull out, enrich, deepen and topographic point in context pupils ‘ believing about the construct of peace. The lesson to be learnt is non merely the content of the construct but besides its passage and making that is the methodological analysis of peace. Given that peace is active and participatory, the teaching method of peace instruction is crucially of import. Peace is non merely what is done but besides a quality of the manner in which it is done. While texts are of import, the peace instruction course of study will besides utilize function -plays, games and collaborative acquisition undertakings. Group activities provide chances to larn about dialogue, cooperation and working together ”.
Peace instruction is most effectual when the accomplishments of peace and struggle declaration are learned actively and are modeled by the school environment in which students are taught ( Baldo and Furniss, 1998 ). Educational plans have the possible to do paces at accomplishing peace through assorted educational attempts and procedures in formal, non-formal, and informal instruction.
Cremin, Peader ( 1993 ) stated “ It was apprehensible that in Hiroshima and Nagasaki peace instruction was about entirely equated with anti-nuclear bomb instruction. For many instructors, who were victims and subsisters of the Atomic bomb onslaught, the nucleus of peace instruction was nil more than stating others about their ain personal experience in August 1945 ”.
Haris & A ; Morrison ( 1988 ) stated “ Peace Education is presently considered to be both a doctrine and a procedure affecting accomplishment, including hearing, contemplation, job resolution, co-operation and struggle declaration. The procedure involves authorising people with the accomplishments, attitude and cognition to make a safe universe and construct a sustainable environment. The doctrine Teachs passive resistance, love, compassion, and fear for all life ”.
Fountain, Susan ( 1999 ) stated that cyberspace, CD-ROM, kids ‘s books, traditional common people narratives, Proverbs, art work and artefacts, and linguistic communication instruction can be used as originative avenues to present peace instruction constructs, accomplishments and attitudes, whether in or out of the school context.
PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY
The survey attempted to research the present position of peace in the course of study of English and Pakistan Studies taught in schools of North-West Frontier Province. Qualitative attack was used for informations aggregation. The procedure involved reading of informations and its transition into per centums from which illations were drawn.
Population OF THE STUDY
All the secondary schools ( both genders ) in public and private sectors of rural and urban countries of Peshawar District constituted the population of this survey.
Boundary line OF THE STUDY
The range of the survey was narrowed down to the topics of English and Pakistan Studies of categories 9th & A ; 10th.
The sample of the survey included the course of study in the topics of English and Pakistan Studies prescribed for 9th and 10th categories. Twenty schools and 80 capable instructors were selected from Peshawar District. From those schools ten were selected each from private and authorities sectors of rural and urban countries. Four course of study contrivers in all were interviewed. The simple random technique was used for the aggregation of informations.
The research instruments included questionnaires and interviews. The instrument of the survey included an unfastened ended questionnaire for instructors, which contained 10 inquiries chiefly asked them to react on the points contained the aims of the survey. Questionnaires were floated to the topic instructors in the selected schools and informations were collected personally from the respondents. Two types of interviews were held: face to face and telephonic from the course of study contrivers. These interviews besides elicited responses to the inquiries chiefly based on the aims of the survey.
The primary informations were collected from the questionnaires administered to the respondents, who were given sensible clip of one hebdomad. The interviews were held with the cardinal sources, such as course of study contrivers and instructors, on the footing of pre scheduled interviews.
Analysis OF THE DATA
The informations collected from instructors and course of study contrivers, through questionnaires and interviews severally, were analyzed and the fluctuation in the sentiment of the respondents was elicited with the aid of per centum method.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This subdivision is confined to the analysis and reading of the informations obtained from questionnaires and interviews. The positions of the respondents were made meaningful with the aid of per centums. The consequences revealed that 55 % of the respondents answered that the course of study did non advance the civic duties amongst the pupils. 94 % of the respondents were of the position that peace, love, and harmoniousness is really indispensable for the development of brooding thought accomplishment amongst the scholars, while 100 % respondents were of the sentiment that the course of study did non advance the brooding thought accomplishment amongst the scholars.
Table-1: Importance of Peace, Love, and Harmony in Curriculum
The consequences of the informations analyzed in Table-1 were mentioned under two classs of responses ( A and B ) and farther illustrated through Graph ( Figure-1 ).
A Out of 80 respondents, 75 were of the position that peace, love, and harmoniousness were really important in both the topics in order to develop brooding or rational thought accomplishment. The linguistic communication of English could easy develop brooding or rational thought and Pakistan surveies, with the aid of peace, love, and harmoniousness could besides alter the political orientation of the pupils.
B The staying 05 respondents believed that the topics of English and Pakistan Studies did non hold peace, love, and harmoniousness in the content and, hence, did non develop brooding or rational thought.
Figure-1: Importance of Peace, Love, and Harmony in Curriculum
In the visible radiation of analysis and findings of this survey, the undermentioned decisions were drawn:
On the whole the course of study did non advance the civic duty amongst the pupils at secondary degree.
Peace, Love, and Harmony are really indispensable for the development of brooding thought accomplishment amongst the scholars at secondary degree.
The course of study of English and Pakistan Studies did non advance brooding thought accomplishment amongst the pupils.
Development of reflective or critical thought accomplishment in the pupils was considered indispensable and it could merely be cultivated if the elements of Peace, Love, and harmoniousness would be incorporated in the course of study of English and Pakistan surveies through the exercisings at the terminal of the lessons, which would incorporate the elements of Peace, Love, and harmoniousness.
Inappropriate constabularies of Textbook Board and Federal Curriculum Wing, deficiency of consciousness and professionalism of the instructors, neutrality of schools, societal and fiscal issues are the obstructions, which hampered the accomplishment of the end of Peace instruction.
Mr.Muhammad Naeem Butt is working as Lecturer in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.. He did his M.Phil in Education from Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar – Pakistan nb840 @ yahoo.com
Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is soon working as Professor of Education in Department of Education, Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar – Pakistan
Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Phd in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
Electronic mail: naseer_khanpk2000 @ yahoo.com
Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.
Miss. Safia Noor is soon working as chief Govt. Girls High School, Charsada, Pakistan. She did her M.Phil in instruction.