Audit and Analysis of Goldman Sachs Essay

‘ The selling audit is a systematic scrutiny of a concern ‘s selling environment, aims, schemes and activities with a position to placing cardinal strategic issues, job countries and chances. ‘

The Aim of Marketing Audit-
It will supply us with an in depth position of bing selling patterns used by Goldman Sachs.

It can be used as a baseline for public presentation measurings to maximise positive external perceptual experience.

As the clients ‘ penchants and requirement support on altering and so are the selling tendencies, it will supply us an interim study card on the company ‘s public presentation degree.

It will foreground the key job countries like Failings and Threats for Goldman Sachs and can assist contrive schemes to get the better of them by utilizing their strengths and possible chances.

It will assist to measure the importance of macroeconomic factors by analysing the extent of their impact on Goldman Sachs ‘s operating scenario.

Understanding Marketing Environment for Goldman Sachs at Micro and Macro Levels
It is really of import that an organisation considers its environment before get downing the selling procedure. In fact, environmental analysis should be uninterrupted and feed all facets of planning. The organisation ‘s selling environment is made up of:

Microenvironment – ‘It is the immediate environment that affects its capableness to run expeditiously in its chosen markets ‘ . ( Jobbers 2001 )

Following are the chief constituents of Goldman Sachs Microenvironment

The Companies Internal Environment -Goldman Sachs is highly selective when it comes to the resources. It is a good known fact they employ the Best Brains in the Industry and their resources are claimed to be one of the chief assets that the Company has, the other 2 being capital and repute.

Suppliers/Vendors – Goldman Sachs believes that by broadening its provider base it will derive entree to new thoughts, addition competition and have better value for money. To measure up as a seller to Goldman Sachs, prospective providers are evaluated on several standards, including:

quality merchandises and services ;

 first-class client service ;

 competitory pricing ;

 ability to help us in run intoing our concern ends ; and

 environmental and societal impact.

Customers – Goldman Sachs clients include high-net-worth persons, Corporations, Financial Institutions, Institutional Investment Consultants, Insurance Companies Multi-Employer/Union Benefit Plans, Not-for-Profit Institutions, Public Pension Fundss.

Competitors- The major direct market rivals for Goldman Sachs include JPMorgan Chase & A ; Co, Merrill Lynch & A ; Co. and Morgan Stanley whereas ; Bank of America Securities LLC, Deutsche Bank AG etc besides compete with Goldman Sachs in footings of Investment Banking.

2. ) The macro-environment –
It comprises of a figure of broader forces that affect non merely Goldman Sachs but other microeconomic factors matching to the house.

The constituents are

Demographic forces/ Social/Cultural Forces –
Consideration of demographic alterations is a applaudable exhibition of concern presbyopia by Goldman Sachs. A batch of watchfulness and attempt has been incorporated to recite the effects of possible alterations sing to the population like the buying impetuss, disbursement forms, disposition towards certain specific categories of fiscal services.

Besides, Goldman Sachs strives to leverage what it calls the most underutilized plus for any state -women. “ Womenomics ” demonstrates how a state can unleash its economic possible – and increase its long-run growing and prosperity – by using more adult females and contracting the employment spread between work forces and adult females.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2010 )

( Goldman Sachs Website 2011 )

Economic Forces – These factors would include alterations in involvement rates, unemployment, rising prices overall economic growing and exchange rates. All these factors have a important impact on the public presentation of Goldman Sachs.

( Oxford University Press 2007 )

Political Forces – Goldman Sachs ‘s close connexion with the US authorities has been an issue of economic experts ‘ concern since the Wall Street Subprime Incidence of 2007. A Batch of employees of Goldman Sachs were appointed by the US Government at powerful stations of Treasury and Federal Reserve Players.

Technological Forces – The engineering substructure for Goldman Sachs is so sound holding in position its impact on the cost and the quality of the services offered to the clients.

‘Our engineering footmark is chiefly driven by concern growing and regulative duties ‘ .

( Goldman Sachs Website 2009 )

Goldman Sachs is bound to utilize the latest engineering like computing machines with fast microprocessors to run into the computational demands and to supply cyberspace based services to their clients. However, conformity of keeping standard engineering footmarks is one of the major duties that can non be over ruled.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2009 )

Natural Forces
Global Warming, Climate Changes, renewable energy issues, C footmark and attending to clean energy are some of the natural forces that require attending from the environmental point of position. Goldman Sachs ‘ Environmental Policy Framework embodies their committedness to happening effectual, market-based solutions to turn to clime alteration, ecosystem debasement and other critical environmental issues, and to making new concern chances that benefit the environment.

The above diagram shows the C emanations from Goldman Sachs hub offices, cardinal offices and information centres.

The house has tried to keep its C emanations in the cardinal and hub offices.

The information centres show an increased C emanation every twelvemonth, the same is accounted for elevated computational demands and cyberspace services for the clients.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2009 )

‘A critical set of stairss in a planning exercising is to execute internal appraisals ( including an analysis of public presentation against old program ) and external appraisals ( including an analysis of the operating environment ) that consequence in the designation of strengths, failings, chances. ‘

( University Of South Australia 2009 )

Environmental Factors
Own/Internal Factors
External Opportunities
– International Expansion

– Emerging Markets

– Cross Selling Opportunities

– Industry Consolidation

– Reduced Competition- challengers bankruptcy

External Menaces
– Recognition Market Crisis

– High abrasion Ratess

– Mortgage Issues

– Addition in Interest Ratess

– Government Intervention

Own Strengths
-Global Market Leader, Brand Establishment

-International Reach

-Best Brains & A ; resource substructure

-Innovative Work Culture

-Government Support

SO Schemes
-International Expansion in emerging markets.

-Using Government Support for Industry Consolidation

SE Schemes
– Risk/Crisis Management Measures utilizing the resource mind

-Security Planning against Subprime Mortgage.

Own Failings
– Concentrated in Few Key Merchandises

-High Attrition Ratess

-Blotted Public Image ( Subprime Mortgage Fraud )

– Low perceptual experience of Social Responsibility

OW Schemes
-Diversification of the merchandises

-Education, societal investings, community engagement

TW Schemes
-Increased occupation security for resources

-Using Government support to last the Subprime Mortgage Crisis.

Global Market Leader & A ; Brand Name

Bing in a prima place and the trade name value that it has earned in the market have brought many benefits to Goldman Sachs.

– Higher borders, because it charges premium monetary values for goods since clients perceive a higher criterion of quality from companies with strong trade names.

-Ability to raise debt at lower cost.

-Because of its established Brand Image, Goldman Sachs has a more stable concern than its rivals and is more likely to get other concerns as chances.

International Reach
The international range of Goldman Sachs has a large advantage over challengers particularly when its clients conduct a batch of concern in different states. Presently, Goldman Sachs is runing in over 25 states in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Middle East and Africa.

For case, bulk of concern travelers need to entree their money in another state. They prefer a bank/investment house that has subdivisions in that state, instead than working with a 3rd party, which will increase they fees and lower their productiveness. Global entree of Goldman Sachs means that a consumer from one state can experience comfy banking at any of its subdivision across the universe.

Non planetary companies ca n’t fit these advantages ; hence, Goldman Sachs has strong advantages over challengers.

Best Brains and strong resource substructure
Harmonizing to Warren Buffett, ‘Goldman has the best encephalons in the concern. ‘ This statement implies that they have a better hazard direction, quicker and more effectual action on the chances received and a strong market place.

The recent most grounds is that even ‘Subprime Mortgage Meltdown ‘ instance with the SEC and the new fiscal ordinance reform has failed to dent these assets.

In add-on to holding the best people, Goldman Sachs has a clear, good distributed corporate construction.


Global Conformity

Global Investment Research

Human Capital Management

Internal Audit

Investing Banking

Investing Management


Merchant Banking/Private Equity





Advisory Servicess
Insurance Scheme

Global Portfolio Solutions

Customized Beta Schemes

Advanced Culture
Goldman Sachs strives to keep an advanced civilization which effects production of new and imaginative merchandises. An advanced civilization has helped in hiking Goldman Sachs ‘ trade name value, because consumers start tie ining its trade name name with the latest merchandises.

These merchandises, besides supplying the trade name encouragement, have helped Goldman Sachs to remain competitory in the of all time spread outing markets.

Possessing the best quality merchandise in one section straight helps Goldman Sachs to derive a better market portion in that section.

Concentrated in Few Key Products/key clients
The fact that Goldman Sachs lacks variegation is well hazardous, because if one or more of its chief merchandises prostrations, so the concern could confront serious issues or possibly even bankruptcy.

Besides, loss of one client who is utilizing multiple services of Goldman Sachs would finally take to loss of a considerable sum of concern to it.

Low perceptual experience of Social Responsibility/ Blotted Public Image

As per the ranking released by Fortune, Goldman Sachs stands 7th in the Social Responsibility which depicts the fact that it undermines societal cause to a big extent when compared to other facets of concern like People Management and Financial Soundness where it ranks 1st and 2nd severally.

( CNN 2011 )

The Subprime Mortgage Incidence/ SEC case against Goldman Sachs
April 16, 2010, the SEC filed a case against Goldman Sachs for selling an plus to Bankss whose returns depended on a group of place mortgages being repaid by place loan borrowers.

The alleged fraud foundation laid in the fact that Goldman Sachs did non inform the Bankss that those specific subprime mortgages were recommended by another Goldman Sachs client. And that same client planned to wager against the same mortgages of all time being paid by the place loan borrowers.

The public stance for this fraud was

-Hosting a fire hook game for your friends cognizing the trader was conveying stacked cards and non at least informing your friends of the trader ‘s purpose.

International Expansion
Goldman Sachs has strong chances in the country of international enlargement that will increase growing and net incomes.

Global Expansion will convey synergisms to Goldman Sachs because it would ensue in a larger client base. Expansion besides leads to more fiscal stableness, because in the times of regional economic lag while one state may endure economically, other states may non hold the same issues at the same clip.

-Additionally, enlargement will Goldman Sachs pattern new thoughts and make advanced merchandises through experimentation that may work good in one market. Hence the hazard of failure is diversified.

Emerging Markets
Similar to international enlargement, emerging markets will make extra demand for Goldman Sachs is assisting growing and borders. Emerging markets create new chances to spread out merchandises from the developed universe. Paper merchandises, computing machine services and other industries will all profit as emerging states increase demand for industrial and agricultural merchandises.

Cross Selling Opportunities
Goldman Sachs has many related concern lines ; they have the chance to traverse sell to consumers who arrive for one specific demand, but leave with many different merchandises and services. Cross merchandising is peculiarly moneymaking, because it will let Goldman Sachs to gain excess money from consumers without holding to specifically aim them with advertisement or other promotional stuff.

Consolidating Industry
Goldman Sachs provides advice on a diverse scope of strategic minutess, including amalgamations, sell-side and buy-side advisories, leveraged buy-outs, joint ventures, strategic confederations, anti-raid and raid defences, fairness sentiments and by-products, split-offs, divestitures and other restructurings.A

Goldman Sachs has been offering its amalgamation advisory services since 1997. Some of its major cases are listed below – :

Altria, A on its by-product ofA Philip Morris InternationalA ( $ 113bn ) , 2008
Pfizer, on its acquisition of WyethA ( $ 64bn ) , 2009
Schering-Plough, on its sale toA Merck & A ; Co.A ( $ 46bn ) , 2009
( Goldman Sachs Website 2011 )

Reduced Competition after Wall Street Collapse
Reduced competition from an economic lag and rival bankruptcies ideally increases the net income borders of all houses that avoid bankruptcy.

The Wall Street Collapse after the Subprime Mortgage Crisis has seen Goldman Sachs emerge as profitable, contrary to all the rival houses that either had to declare themselves belly-up or reported immense losingss.

Recognition Market Crisis
‘Goldman Sachs had slumped into the ruddy and its attempt to withstand the recognition crunch had been futile. It revealed a fourth-quarter loss of $ 2.12bn ( ?1.38bn ) today. It still achieved a $ 2.32bn net income for the full twelvemonth to November, but this was aggressively lower than last twelvemonth ‘s $ 11.6bn. ‘

( Guardian 2008 )

The cost of borrowing for Goldman Sachs had been well increaed after the recognition market crisis. This increasing cost lowers borders and decreases the free hard currency flow to stockholders. As free hard currency flow rises, so does the value of the house. If costs are high, so loan growing slows down and farther weakens hard currency flow for the concern.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2008 )

Hazard of High Attrition Ratess
High abrasion rates can be a job, particularly if Goldman Sachs ‘ best endowment is go forthing for other chances. Employee abrasion means a company must travel through the disbursal of engaging new employees, developing those employees, and happening the right niche for them in an organisation. When these employees move to other houses, they take their cognition and expertness with them.

Mortgage Issues
Though Goldman Sachs managed to get away the Subprime Mortgage Crisis, still the possible menace of losingss on outstanding mortgage duties could coerce bankruptcy and a authorities coup d’etat. This means that the bing equity investings in the Goldman Sachs will stand worthless.

Mortgage loans are non deserving what was paid for them, but their value remains unsure in the market. Apart from increasing uncertainness hazard for the company, they besides increase the price reduction rate applied to future hard currency flow. Thus the net value of the stock is reduced.

Crisp Rise in Interest Ratess
A crisp rise in involvement rates ( most probably to halt rising prices ) earnestly amendss the net income borders of concerns like Goldman Sachs that rely on raising money to finance their disbursals. A rise in rates would most likely ache the fiscal sector, which net incomes from borrowing money at low rates and imparting it out at higher rates.

Plague Analysis
Plague analysis stands for ‘Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis ‘ and describes a model of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning constituent of strategic direction.

It is a portion of the external analysis when carry oning a strategic analysis or making market research, and gives an overview of the different macro environmental factors that a company has to take into consideration

Political Factors
The political sphere has a immense influence upon the ordinance of concerns, and the disbursement power of consumers and other concerns.

US Government and Goldman Sachs –
‘There can be no uncertainty that Goldman owes its eldritch success every bit much to its political connexions as to its fiscal acumen. Equally long as that remains the instance, Goldman will doubtless stay on top, to the perplexity of those who fail to hold on the significance of the Goldman Sachs-D.C. grapevine. Merely by reconstructing the wall of separation between Wall Street and Washington, coercing investing houses like Goldman Sachs to stand or fall on their ain virtues, can America ‘s fiscal sector agitate off the contamination of political cronyism that work forces like Sidney Weinberg were happy to promote ‘ .

( The New American 2010 )

As the New York Times explained last October, the presence of Goldman Sachs alumnas in virtually all of the top authorities fiscal stations is so great that their squad is dubbed “ Government Sachs ” .

The New York Times pointed out that Goldman alums include:

Former exchequer secretary Hank Paulson

Paulson ‘s bailout head Neel Kashkari

Interim Treasury investing officer Reuben Jeffrey

Key Treasury participants Dan Jester, Steve Shafran, Edward C. Forst, and Robert K. Steel

Key New York Federal Reserve participants Stephen Friedman ( caput of the New York Fed board of governors, who sat on Goldman ‘s board and owned a significant interest in Goldman while he was doing official determinations )

Head of the New York Fed ‘s unit that buys and sells authorities securities William C. Dudley and E. Gerald Corrigan ( charged with convening a group to analyse hazard on Wall Street )

Economic Factors
For a house like Goldman Sachs which focuses on international selling, the sellers need to see the province of a trading economic system both in the short and long-terms.

1. ) Implications of Inflation in US and UK
-The investors belief in US is that unprecedented financial and pecuniary stimulation can take to US Dollar depreciation and higher rising prices.

– In the United Kingdom, the investors fear that the bank of England ‘s reluctance to raise the involvement rates might move as a accelerator for rising prices.

Inflation is the greatest concern when we talk about investings like pension financess and related gifts.

Current Goldman Sachs scheme for these countries- Inflation Linked bonds
Inflation linked bonds, besides termed as ‘linkers ‘ are high quality securities issues largely by authoritiess that provide income and entire return which adjusts itself to maintain up with the rising prices rates.

Inflation-linked bonds, such as US Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities ( TIPS ) and UK inflation-linked Gilts, can assist fudge this hazard because their principal is adjusted to reflect alterations in rising prices.

Following is an illustration of how rising prices linked bonds will supply the return, taking chief sum of 100 million Dollars.

( Goldman Sachs website 2009 )

Deductions for unemployment –

The impact of unemployment on the public presentation of Goldman Sachs can be understood with a simple illustration that if any house is running at its full capacity, there is more pricing power for concern.

If there are no unemployed workers, Goldman Sachs will hold to pay more to engage a worker off from person else, frequently called ‘Poaching ‘ .

So far, Goldman Sachs has been rather accurate in its anticipations sing the unemployment scenario. Below are the illustrations.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2011 )

Long-run chances for the economic system Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) per capita
The Goldman Sachs Commerce Department seasonably reviews the current economic environment, tailwinds that could back up the recovery and possible hazards for the economic system. Then it provides a sum-up of their projections for the economic system in the approaching twelvemonth.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2011 )

Socio Cultural Factors
Demographical factors-
The demographic factors that require attending in order to revisit Goldman Sachs ‘s bing merchandises include the population fraction consisting retired persons, adult females part, purchasing/ disbursement forms across the population, in-between category income groups and population extremums in major runing states.

Intersection of 3 population Shifts
Retiring Baby Boomers- Goldman Sachs considers the option of puting more in the wellness attention financess, pre and station retirement demands and consumer sector.

Growth of in-between category income group – The in-between income group growing impacts the investing in the agribusiness sector, household trade good market stocks, telecom stocks and banking stocks.

Generational moving ridges after the Baby Boom-The United States is claimed to hold 2 major population extremums

The ‘Millennials ‘ – Age group 16-29 & A ;

Generation Z – Age group ( 0-4 )

These 2 population zones are expected to hold a profound impact on US companies, peculiarly within the TMT and consumer sectors.

The investing spiels of these 3 population zones are as below

( Goldman Sachs Website )

Prosecution of Goldman Sachs ‘ position of Intersection of these population displacements
For diversified exposure to stocks Goldman Sachs has introduced 42-name tradable demographics

Basket, Bloomberg heart GSRHDEMO

Equality between Genders
-Gender inequality hampers the economic growing hence it becomes a authorization for Goldman Sachs to see and advance adult females instruction and employment so as to lend to the economic growing.

-Better adult females employment contributes to the GDP, per capita income that in bend motivates the people to steer their income to investing options.

Investing in a clean energy hereafter
Below are the cardinal figures that highlight Goldman Sachs ‘ investing in the clean energy enterprises:

COGENTRIX- Efficient Power Generation
Cogentrix is a Goldman Sachs subordinate and a US-based independent power manufacturer.

It consists of a balanced mix of power installations, including extremely efficient gas-fired combined-cycle, rapid-start peaking, solar thermal and more efficient coal-burning power workss. Together these workss have a entire coevals capacity of about 3,350 megawatts.

Signed a power purchase understanding to concept and run a air current undertaking in Puerto Rico with a capacity of 50 megawatts.

Completed one river hydroelectric generating works that has 23 megawatt capacity. Three extra run-of-river hydroelectricity undertakings are under development numbering 165 megawatts.

Prosecuting solar development undertakings in the sou’-west U.S.

Goldman Sachs is one of the establishing members of the Green Exchangea„? venture, which trades environmental hereafters, options and barter contracts for markets focused on solutions to climate, renewable energy and other environmental challenges. This new exchange offers effectual and advanced fiscal tools to consumers, industrials, undertaking developers, investors and others who wish to take part in these developing markets.

( Goldman Sachs Website 2009 )

Goldman Sachs ‘ Clean Energy Investings
Goldman Sachs ‘ C Footprints
( Goldman Sachs Website 2009 )

Overall Balanced public presentation taking Environment in consideration –
Comparing these 2 figures we can deduce that Goldman Sachs was unable to cut down its C footmarks over the old ages but the house has tried to counterbalance the consequence by puting more towards the clean energy enterprises.

Technological Factors
Bing an international concern, Goldman Sachs invests mostly in technological demands in order to be able to supply its clients with fast, up to day of the month and secure services.

Technology has a direct impact on the trading velocity and informations calculation and transportation for Goldman Sachs. Computers with fast micro processors, secure and fast cyberspace connexions, informations centres equipped with devices able to execute speedy calculations are the features of Goldman Sachs Technology model.

At the same clip, Goldman Sachs has non overruled the duty to pull off its engineering footmark by taking below steps: –

1. Influencing sellers to supply merchandises and attacks that cut down or keep

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