The problems of exploiting/motivating

Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control.

Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common.

Early writing[edit] While management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background of works that assisted in modern management theories. [5] Some ancient military texts have been cited for lessons that civilian managers can gather. For example, Chinese general Sun Txt in the 6th century BC, The Art f War, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager’s organization and a foe’s. [5] Various ancient and medieval civilizations have produced “mirrors for princes” books, which aim to advise new monarchs on how to govern.

Examples include the Indian Arthritis by Chancy (written around BBC), and The Prince by Italian author Niccole Machiavelli (c. Further information: Mirrors for princes 19th century[edit] Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723-1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806- 1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and racing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765-1825), James Watt (1736-1819), and Matthew Bolton (1728-1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.

Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, “managed” in profitable quasi-mass production. Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through division of labor. [6] Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day. 6] 20th century[edit] By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientist for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Townie’s Science of management in the sass, Frederick Winslow Tailor’s The Principles of Scientific Management (1 91 1), Frank and Lillian Gilbert’s Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gannet’s charts (asses). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911.

In 1912 Which Menu introduced Tailors to Japan and became first management consultant of the “Japanese-management style”. His son Choir Menu pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henry Payola (1 841 1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Roadway Dead (1891-1973), Walter Scott and J.

Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880-1949), Mary Parker Foulest (1868-1933), Chester Bernard (1886-1961), Max Weber (1864-1920), Rinses Liker (1903-1981 and Chris Arises (* 1 923) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Peter Trucker (1909-2005) wrote en of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organization. Trucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein.

H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890-1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management- studies. In the asses, Patrick Blackest worked in the development of the applied mathematics science of operations research, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as “management science” (but distinct room Tailor’s scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision problems, and can be directly applied to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.

Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog’s Ladder. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/ science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularized systems of management ideas to peddle their wares.

In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely: Human resource management Operations management or production management Strategic management Marketing management Financial management Information technology management responsible for management information yester 21 SST century[edit] In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way.

More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also pawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship.

Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti- corporate activism. As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management embraces some agree democratic principle?in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management.

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Slave-owners and problems of exploiting

Question 2 Competency can be defined as . Knowledge, skills and the ability to perform a task. The ability to listen attentively. The ability to teach effectively. He ability to respond to learners’ needs. Question 3 Perceptual incidences, inattention and neurological handicaps are examples of… Medical obstacles to learning. Pedagogical obstacles to learning. Social obstacles to learning. Systematic obstacles to learning. Question 4 An additional language is learnt well if 1 The language that the educator uses is easy enough for the learners to understand all the words. The language that the educator uses is a little above the learners current level of competence in the second language 3 The educator first makes sure that the learners understand all the words and incepts that he/ she are going to use. 4 The educator uses very difficult words and then makes sure that the learners go and look up the words in a dictionary. Question 5 Which of the following combinations is acceptable for the support of learners whose home language is not the LOT?

Learners should not be allowed to work in their home language (ii) Vocabulary list should be drawn up (iii) Visual materials are not language related and should therefore not be used in a great deal (iv) The educator should as far as possible explain the content in the learners’ home language. 2 (i), and (ii) are acceptable i) and (iv) are acceptable (ii) and (iii) are acceptable (i), (ii) and (iv) are acceptable Question 6 Which one of the following statements is applicable to the use of teaching media?

The media ensures that the learners are actively involved during the lesson 2 It is usually the teacher who handles the media and this may thus result in a lesson becoming teacher centered. 3 When educators produce their own media, they should make sure that the media are durable and can be used over and over again. 4 Media can make a lesson more interesting, hold the learners attention longer and in so doing improve learning. Question 7 Which one of the following statement on the making of language errors is correct? All language errors that learners make in written work should be clearly indicated 2 When learners make language errors while speaking, he/she should be interrupted and the error pointed out. 3 If language errors are constantly corrected, it will produce learners who makes very few errors. 4 All the above Which of the following statements about learning is CORRECT? The learning process is just as important as the resulting end product. The mediator of learning should emphasize teaching rather than learning. What the learners learn is more important than how they learn.

The knowledge and regulation of one’s own learning processes are referred to as transcendence. Question 9 Which one of the following is an indicator of a positive classroom climate? Competition Autocratic management style Cohesion Favoritism Question 10 When learners work together in a group and work towards a common goal it is called…. Simulation Think tanks Problem solving Cooperative learning Question 1 1 During which stages of cognitive development as identified by Pigged will learner’s ability to think abstractly be fully developed?

Sensory motor stage Pre-operational stage Concrete operational stage Formal operational stage Which of the following combinations is not characteristic of the mediation of learning as Bernstein intended? Intentionality and reflexivity; mediation of a feeling of competence; mediation of challenge 2 Mediation of self change; mediation of regulation and control of behavior; mediation of experiences 3 Mediation of meaning ; mediation of shared behavior; mediation of individualistic and psychological differentiation 4 Transcendence; mediation of goal setting; pursuing objectives and planning of behavior, mediation of self change.

Question 13 Learning style refers to general motives that influence a learner’s motivations or goals in learning. 2 the learner’s awareness of his own cognitive processes and the regulation and control of those processes in accordance with the learning task. 3 the expectations, demands and objectives which people usually have when approaching a specific learning task. 4 the tendency of the individual to learn in a certain way and the way in which he/she learns best.

Question 14 What combination of the following activities are characteristics of the ideation of learning? i. The mediator makes sure that the learners has absorbed and memorized the knowledge required on his/ her cultural background ii. The mediator serves as a link between the child and his/her cultural heritage and between the child and his/her environment iii. The mediator works together with the learner and helps the learner to understand his/her approach to the problem iv.

The mediator makes sure that the learner is aware of the value, meaning and relevance of what he/ she are doing. (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct (i) , (ii) and (iv) are correct (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct What combination of the following statements on constructivism is correct? Learning is viewed as an active process and not as a passive process Knowledge is obtained through active construction and reconstruction of Learning implies that information has to be memorized effectively meaning Ill.

Learning is a process of reflecting on and interpreting experiences (i) and (ii) are correct (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct Question 16 Which of the following statements regarding constructivism is INCORRECT? 1 Constructivism regards learning as a process of reflection and interpretation of experiences. 2 Constructivism focuses on the cognitive processes people use to make sense of the world around them. 3 Constructivism sees learning as process of stimuli, response and reinforcement of responses. Constructivism sees learning as a social process whereby learners acquire knowledge through interaction with their environment. Question 17 Learning can best be described as 1 new information obtained by an individual and applying the new information in a practical situation. 2 creating new information and studying (memorizing) this information to pass an examination. Process of providing stimuli and reinforcing learners’ responses to these stimuli. 4 a change in an individual’s comprehension and behavior that leads to added knowledge or the ability to do something that the learner could not do before.

Question 18 The correct order of the levels of cognition identified by Bloom (from the lowest to the highest level) is: Synthesis; analysis; evaluation; knowledge; comprehension; application Analysis; knowledge; comprehension; evaluation; synthesis; application Knowledge; comprehension; application; analysis; synthesis; evaluation Comprehension; knowledge; analysis; application; evaluation; synthesis Question 19 The learning content that the learners had to memories was most important for the traditional teacher. What is most important for the mediator?

The knowledge The learning process The skills The evaluation process Question 20 Which one of the following statements regarding the use of media is correct? 1 Media ensures that learners are actively involved in the lesson. 2 It is usually the education that handles the media and therefore media can make a lesson teacher-centered. 3 When educators design and develop their own media they should ensure that the media is strong and can be used repeatedly. Media can make a lesson interesting, can keep learners’ attention for long periods of time and can therefore improve learning.

Question 21 Communication does not just take place verbally, but it can also be nonverbal, such as through tone of voice, facial expression and eye contact. What percentage of a person’s communication takes place non-verbally? 55% 60% 65% Question 22 Which of the following should be kept in mind when writing on the chalkboard? Limit the information to essentials. Write only six to seven words per line. Always use different colors of chalk. Avoid turning your back to learners for too long periods of time.

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