Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control.
Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common.
Early writing While management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background of works that assisted in modern management theories.  Some ancient military texts have been cited for lessons that civilian managers can gather. For example, Chinese general Sun Txt in the 6th century BC, The Art f War, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager’s organization and a foe’s.  Various ancient and medieval civilizations have produced “mirrors for princes” books, which aim to advise new monarchs on how to govern.
Examples include the Indian Arthritis by Chancy (written around BBC), and The Prince by Italian author Niccole Machiavelli (c. Further information: Mirrors for princes 19th century Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723-1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806- 1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and racing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765-1825), James Watt (1736-1819), and Matthew Bolton (1728-1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.
Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, “managed” in profitable quasi-mass production. Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through division of labor.  Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day. 6] 20th century By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientist for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Townie’s Science of management in the sass, Frederick Winslow Tailor’s The Principles of Scientific Management (1 91 1), Frank and Lillian Gilbert’s Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gannet’s charts (asses). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911.
In 1912 Which Menu introduced Tailors to Japan and became first management consultant of the “Japanese-management style”. His son Choir Menu pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henry Payola (1 841 1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Roadway Dead (1891-1973), Walter Scott and J.
Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880-1949), Mary Parker Foulest (1868-1933), Chester Bernard (1886-1961), Max Weber (1864-1920), Rinses Liker (1903-1981 and Chris Arises (* 1 923) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Peter Trucker (1909-2005) wrote en of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organization. Trucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein.
H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890-1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management- studies. In the asses, Patrick Blackest worked in the development of the applied mathematics science of operations research, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as “management science” (but distinct room Tailor’s scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision problems, and can be directly applied to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.
Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog’s Ladder. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/ science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularized systems of management ideas to peddle their wares.
In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely: Human resource management Operations management or production management Strategic management Marketing management Financial management Information technology management responsible for management information yester 21 SST century In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way.
More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also pawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship.
Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti- corporate activism. As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management embraces some agree democratic principle?in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management.